Citizen / citizenship

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Over the past twenty years, media responsibility and accountability in Europe have been a recurring theme, both on the academic and political agenda (De Haan, 2012; Bardoel & Brants, 2004).

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During the past ten years public service media organizations have experienced increasing demands for transparency, audience participation and public engagement. In response to this a number of reformed regulatory structures and audience-engagement measures were
implemented.

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This presentation is based on a pre-study for an in-depth research on audience participation in media policy debates and media governance related to PSM. It strives to identify so called “users as citizens” or – as they are conceptualized – PSM challengers in European nation states. In a four month period, sixteen different groups in various countries have been identified, so far.

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Public service media (PSM) have enjoyed a continued presence as mainstream media in many European media systems, and beyond. Traditionally, public service was organised in centralised and paternal institutions (Williams, 1968), part of an exercise of political unification under the roof of the nation state (Gellner, 1983) and of a cultural civilization (Bauman, 1992: 7-9).

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Like many developing countries, Morocco has sought the help of radio and television to disseminate development ideas to its citizens. There are large numbers of non-literate or marginally literate individuals who are living out their lives in print-scarce environments with few or no reading materials in their homes, but they have regular access to radio and television.

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There is wide concern that democratic practice as evident primarily in voter turnout during elections has been waning in many parts of the world. The mass media is thought to be part of the problem as they fall short in their performance of their roles in a democracy.

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Petros Iosifidis, examining traditional European public broadcasting in its current digital “reinvention” phase, asks a fundamental question: “how can PSB’s take account of the different media platforms for PSM… and the changing relationship with the audience?” (2010, p. 2). Similarly, authors of audience (c.f.

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Citizen journalism in Taiwan have become more and more influential during last decade along with the development of ICTS (information and communication technologies), especially the Internet (including websites, blogs, and social media).

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